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Positive Action logo
Evidence Based. Internationally Recognized.
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Outcome
Improvement
Effect Size
p - value
Publication
Study
Date
Personal Hygiene
18%
0.48
0.02
2016
Healthy Eating and Exercise
8%
0.21
0.09
2016
Unhealthy Eating
8%
-0.19
0.08
2016
Body Mass Index
8%
-0.21
0.07
2016
Understand positive actions
18%
0.47
- -
2014
Self-Concept
22%
0.59
- -
2014
Physical Health
21%
0.57
- -
2014
Intellect Health
19%
0.50
- -
2014
Self-Management
14%
0.36
- -
2014
Self-Control
27%
0.72
- -
2014
Respect
17%
0.45
- -
2014
Considerate
18%
0.46
- -
2014
Social Bonding
18%
0.46
- -
2014
Honesty
17%
0.43
- -
2014
Self-Improvement
19%
0.49
- -
2014
Total Development Improvement
23%
0.62
- -
2014
Normative Beliefs in Support of Aggression - Student Report
-59%
-0.68
- -
2013
Frequency of Disruptive Behaviors - Student Reports
-19%
-0.50
- -
2013
Violence-Related Behaviors - Parent Reports
-20%
-0.54
- -
2013
Bullying - Parent Reports
-13%
-0.31
- -
2013
Bullying Behaviors - Student Reports
-51%
-0.39
- -
2013
Discipline Referrals
-22%
-0.58
- -
2013
Suspensions
-11%
-0.27
- -
2013
Disaffection with Learning - Student Self Report
-7%
-0.19
- -
2013
Academic Ability - Teacher Ratings of Students
5%
0.14
- -
2013
Academic Motivation - Teacher Ratings of Students
15%
0.39
- -
2013
Absenteeism
-28%
-0.78
- -
2013
Illinois Standardized Reading - Students Combined
9%
0.22
- -
2013
Illinois Standardized Reading - African Americans
19%
0.50
- -
2013
Illinois Standardized Math - Students Combined
15%
0.38
- -
2013
Illinois Standardized Math - African Americans
21%
0.55
- -
2013
Life Satisfaction
5%
0.13
< 0.05
2013
Anxiety
-10%
-0.26
< 0.001
2013
Depression
-6%
-0.14
< 0.05
2013
Substance Use
62%
- -
< 0.01
2013
Violent Behaviors
75%
- -
< 0.001
2013
Sexual Activity
91%
- -
< 0.001
2013
Substance Use - Composite (Student)
10%
-0.270
< 0.01
2012
Substance Use - Count (Student)
30%
-0.290
- -
2012
Substance Use - Composite (School)
13%
- -
< 0.01
2012
Substance Use - Count (School)
38%
- -
< 0.01
2012
Cigarette Use - Ever (Student)
31%
-0.210
- -
2012
Cigarette Use - Ever (School)
34%
- -
< 0.05
2012
Alcohol Use - Ever (Student)
29%
-0.35
- -
2012
Alcohol Use - More Than Once (Student)
45%
-0.350
- -
2012
Alcohol Use - Ever (School)
31%
- -
< 0.05
2012
Alcohol Use - More Than Once (School)
43%
- -
< 0.05
2012
Gotten Drunk - Ever (Student)
41%
-0.290
- -
2012
Gotten Drunk - More Than Once (Student)
46%
-0.220
- -
2012
Gotten Drunk - More Than Once (School)
49%
- -
< 0.05
2012
Gotten Drunk - Ever (School)
41%
- -
< 0.05
2012
Marijuana - Ever (Student)
37%
-0.230
- -
2012
Marijuana - More Than Once (Student)
31%
-0.170
- -
2012
Marijuana - Ever (School)
48%
- -
< 0.05
2012
Marijuana - More Than Once (School)
50%
- -
- -
2012
Student Safety and Well-Being - Teacher Reports
24%
1.60
0.003
2012
School Involvement - Teacher Reports
19%
1.75
0.005
2012
School Satisfaction - Teacher Reports
48%
1.40
0.011
2012
Quality Student Support - Teacher Reports
29%
1.91
0.001
2012
Responsiveness of the School System - Teacher Reports
24%
1.71
0.001
2012
Coordinated Team Work - Teacher Reports
25%
1.80
0.007
2012
Student Safety and Well-Being - Parent Reports
16%
1.66
0.001
2012
School Involvement - Parent Reports
11%
1.09
0.020
2012
School Satisfaction - Parent Reports
21%
1.25
0.014
2012
Quality Student Support - Parent Reports
16%
1.46
0.004
2012
Focused Action from the School System - Parent Reports
21%
0.90
0.008
2012
Standards-Based Learning - Parent Reports
8%
0.81
0.013
2012
Coordinated Team Work - Parent Reports
21%
1.08
0.021
2012
School Involvement - Student Reports
38%
1.45
0.021
2012
Quality Student Support - Student Reports
18%
1.21
0.019
2012
Professionalism and System Capacity - Student Reports
25%
1.54
0.026
2012
Coordinated Team Work - Student Reports
25%
1.64
0.019
2012
School Quality Composite - Teacher Reports
21%
1.61
0.006
2012
School Quality Composite - Parent Reports
13%
1.26
0.007
2012
School Quality Composite - Student Reports
16%
1.31
0.015
2012
Intervention Acceptability - Teacher
50%
3.90
- -
2012
Content Knowledge
43%
1.50
- -
2012
Engagement - Teacher
20%
0.52
- -
2012
Engagement - Student
20%
0.52
- -
2012
Motivation - Teacher
50%
3.00
- -
2012
Substance Use
31%
- -
- -
2011
Violence-Related Behaviors
36%
- -
- -
2011
Bullying Behaviors
-41%
- -
- -
2011
Suspensions
72%
-0.870
0.028
2010
Hawaii Math Test
51%
1.100
0.006
2010
Standardized Reading Test
9%
0.540
0.028
2010
Hawaii Reading Test
20%
0.650
0.043
2010
Absenteeism
15%
-0.650
0.001
2010
Hawaii Math Test
51%
1.100
0.006
2010
Standardized Reading Test
9%
0.540
0.028
2010
Hawaii Reading Test
20%
0.650
0.043
2010
Absenteeism
15%
-0.650
0.001
2010
Family Conflict
8%
0.36
0.019
2010
Family Cohesion
6%
0.34
0.045
2010
Parent / Child Bonding
9%
0.59
0.019
2010
Family Cohesion - Parent Response
9%
- -
- -
2010
Parent / Child Bonding - Parent Response
14%
- -
- -
2010
Family Conflict - Parent Response
17%
- -
- -
2010
Family Cohesion - Youth Response
6%
- -
- -
2010
Parent / Child Bonding - Youth Response
7%
- -
- -
2010
Family Conflict - Youth Response
12%
- -
- -
2010
Tobacco
47%
0.41
- -
2009
Alcohol
46%
0.44
- -
2009
Alcohol - Got Intoxicated
69%
0.75
- -
2009
Drug Use
73%
0.82
- -
2009
Drug Use - Got Intoxicated
80%
0.99
- -
2009
Carried Knife or Razor to Hurt Someone
63%
0.64
- -
2009
Threatened to Cut or Stab Someone
62%
0.62
- -
2009
Cut or Stabbed Someone
71%
0.77
- -
2009
Carried a Gun
56%
0.57
- -
2009
Shot at Someone
75%
0.89
- -
2009
Sexual Activity
82%
1.10
- -
2009
Tobacco Use - Teacher Report of Student Behavior
38%
0.33
- -
2009
Alcohol Use - Teacher Report of Student Behavior
5%
0.04
- -
2009
Drug Use - Teacher Report of Student Behavior
63%
0.69
- -
2009
Gets Into a Lot of Fights - Teacher Report of Student Behavior
29%
0.30
- -
2009
Physically Hurts Others - Teacher Report of Student Behavior
33%
0.31
- -
2009
Threatens Others - Teacher Report of Student Behavior
29%
0.27
- -
2009
Destroys Things Belonging to Others - Teacher Report of Student Behavior
40%
0.41
- -
2009
Substance Use
44%
- -
0.004
2009
Violent Behaviors
51%
- -
0.001
2009
Violent Behaviors -Teacher Reported
34%
- -
0.035
2009
Substance Use (2 years vs 3 years)
41%
- -
< 0.001
2009
Violent Behaviors (2 years vs 3 years)
73%
- -
< 0.001
2009
Sexual Activity (2 years vs 3 years)
89%
- -
< 0.001
2009
SE District Reading Achievement - Matched Sets
44%
0.873
0.001
2003
SE District Comprehensive Achievement - Matched Sets
4%
0.968
0.001
2003
Violent Behavior - Matched Sets
68%
0.965
0.000
2003
Suspensions - Matched Sets
33%
0.836
0.003
2003
Middle School Reading Achievement - Low Feeder
11%
0.918
0.014
2003
Middle School Reading Achievement - High Feeder
16%
0.918
0.014
2003
Middle School Math Achievement - Low Feeder
11%
0.826
0.028
2003
Middle School Math Achievement -High Feeder
20%
0.826
0.028
2003
Middle School Drug Use - Low Feeder
37%
0.522
0.001
2003
Middle School Drug Use - High Feeder
71%
0.522
0.001
2003
Middle School Violence - Low Feeder
36%
0.665
0.047
2003
Middle School Violence - High Feeder
70%
0.655
0.047
2003
Middle School Disruptive Behavior - Low Feeder
32%
0.767
0.047
2003
Middle School Disruptive Behavior - High Feeder
69%
0.767
0.047
2003
Middle School Property Crime - Low Feeder
31%
0.874
0.000
2003
Middle School Property Crime -High Feeder
52%
0.874
0.000
2003
Middle School Absenteeism - Low Feeder
32%
0.750
0.000
2003
Middle School Absenteeism - High Feeder
75%
0.750
0.000
2003
High School Writing Achievement - Low Feeder
5%
0.719
0.021
2003
High School Writing Achievement - High Feeder
11%
0.719
0.021
2003
High School Academic Standards - Low Feeder
6%
0.596
0.019
2003
High School Academic Standards - High Feeder
10%
0.596
0.019
2003
High School SAT - Low Feeder
3%
0.767
0.023
2003
High School SAT - High Feeder
10%
0.767
0.023
2003
After High School Continuing Education - Low Feeder
31%
0.870
0.001
2003
After High School Continuing Education - High Feeder
38%
0.870
0.001
2003
High School Drop Out - Low Feeder
11%
0.623
0.001
2003
High School Drop Out - High Feeder
37%
0.623
0.001
2003
High School Substance Use - Low Feeder
27%
0.289
0.032
2003
High School Substance Use - High Feeder
49%
0.289
0.032
2003
High School Violence - Low Feeder
31%
0.704
0.000
2003
High School Violence - High Feeder
50%
0.704
0.000
2003
High School Sexual Activity - Low Feeder
26%
0.476
0.007
2003
High School Sexual Activity - High Feeder
63%
0.476
0.007
2003
High School Falsify Records - Low Feeder
50%
0.522
0.003
2003
High School Falsify Records - High Feeder
57%
0.522
0.003
2003
High School Absenteeism - Low Feeder
8%
0.603
0.008
2003
High School Absenteeism - High Feeder
12%
0.603
0.008
2003
High School Suspension - Low Feeder
17%
0.502
0.005
2003
High School Suspension - High Feeder
25%
0.502
0.005
2003
Self-Concept
30%
- -
- -
Prior to 2001
2002
Academic Achievement
12%
0.54
- -
Prior to 2001
2002
Absenteeism
6%
0.15
- -
Prior to 2001
2002
Discipline Referrals
21%
1.10
- -
Prior to 2001
2002
Suspensions
88%
1.10
- -
Prior to 2001
2002
Violence
26%
1.26
- -
Prior to 2001
2002
Substance Use
56%
1.26
- -
Prior to 2001
2002
Math Achievement (Nevada)
21%
- -
0.000
2001
Reading Achievement (Nevada)
13%
- -
0.001
2001
Language Achievement (Nevada)
13%
- -
0.001
2001
Combined Achievement (Nevada)
16%
- -
0.000
2001
Violence - Student to Student
87%
- -
0.048
2001
Violence - Student to Staff
100%
- -
0.022
2001
Violent Incidents - per school
86%
- -
0.028
2001
Violent Incidents - per 1000 students
85%
- -
0.013
2001
Absenteeism
4%
- -
< 0.05
2001
Math Achievement (Hawaii)
51%
- -
0.000
2001
Reading Achievement (Hawaii)
52%
- -
0.002
2001
Combined Achievement (Hawaii)
52%
- -
0.000
2001
Rule Breaks - Department Rules
86%
- -
0.045
2001
Rule Breaks - School Rules
100%
- -
0.048
2001
Total Behavior Incidents
78%
- -
0.035
2001
Suspensions
80%
- -
0.010
2001
Absenteeism
7%
- -
0.050
2001